As a gamefowl breeder, we can learn a lot through the scientific breeding of American Games. By understanding Dominant and Recessive Genes we apply this knowledge to our breeding programs. Hope you enjoyed the article, and thanks again for reading. Join us at the BREEDERS ACADEMY, and learn how to create a true strain, one that you can be proud of. Poultry Breeding and Management, first published a century ago, was an immediate hit with farmers and breeders alike, and remained in print for nearly thirty years. It was the best, most popular, and most influential poultry book of its time, and remains well worth reading today. Table of Contents. Historical Aspect. Evolution of Modern Fowl. Unlike most chicken breeds, the American Gamefowl is further named by lineage strains such as Marsh Butchers, Sweaters, Kelsos, and so on. These names hearken back to the historical owners of notable pit cocks whose stamina, strength, or particular moves were prized and thus used to breed similar fighters. Pictures Of American Game Fowl Chickens. Your fowl are either improving or degenerating with each passing generation. Selective breeding is the only means whereby a flock can be improved: this type of breeding demands culling of all birds that do not measure up to the standard of the breed. Every breeder has a standard; if not, then they are multipliers and not breeders. Aug 17, 2020 For the average breeder, their gamefowl are a mixture of many varieties and strains. In most cases, the crossing is continued over prolonged periods of time. Every year new birds are acquired for breeding with no idea as to the quality and substance of their genetic pool.The Philippines is now acknowledged asthe center of the game fowl industry of the world after the game fowl raising and its attendant sport, cockfighting haVE become anoutlawed activity in the United States of America. While no exactfigures can be gathered, the industry is booming and is impacting awide cross section of the economy and social life of Filipinos.
Ilonggos and Negrenses are known widelyas the pioneers of scientific breeding and the fowls raised in theseparts and fowls coming from here are sold to all parts of the countryat prices higher than those locally grown there. We also have thereputation of having the knack for selecting the better fighters andthis had added to a reputation of excellence among breeders big andsmall.
Aside from the ubiquitous gamefowls,there are many other income earning sub-industries within the largeindustry system that when studied closely would show that the gamefowl industry is one that should be promoted enhanced and preserved.Game fowl raising needs support sub-system players like the makers oftie-cords so that the roosters are anchored in place and makers oftepees or the structures that shade them from the harsh elements.There are also those who make other paraphernalia like gloves forchickens, tapes, scabbards and knives. These artisans are otherwiseunemployed and their income derived from these livelihood activitiesare their only means to support their families and send theirchildren to school.
Take the case of two small scalebreeders in Brgy. San Nicolas, Oton, Iloilo. Nelson “Tandok”Tingzon had been growing gamefowls for more than 20 years already. Herecalls that even as a child he helped his father take care of theirchickens which when sold provide food and some extras for othernecessities. Rommel Planta has an almost the same story. He also grewup around chickens and he loved the selling aspect because he and hisfriends can sell their chickens at several times the price ofchickens intended for meat.
Nelson and Rommel have no other meansof livelihood except raising game fowls. Being already well-versed onthe breeding aspect, they make sure that their breeders are wellselected and often, they come from known breeders or from theirbuyers who want them to breed a certain type which they willexclusively buy from him. And they don't simply take the word ofothers when it comes to selection. They have their own set ofcriteria developed through their long years of hands-on breeding.
Breeding for true to type individualsand for performance.
One breed that they both maintain arethe Sweater fowls, said to be originated by Mr. Sweater McGinnis, anAmerican breeder of the 1930s to the 1950s. These fowls are lightred, bordering on pumpkin color and are well liked by many because oftheir fighting style and is said to be one of the outstanding breedsin the Philippine cockfighting scene. Nelson and Romel have their ownversion of the Sweaters and they say that each year they sell morethan 100 each for this type of fowl. What they breed it with is theirsecret though. They say that they mate their outstanding Sweaterbrood cocks with hens whose brothers have also performed in the pitas fought by their buyers.
They also have other breeds like theHigh Action Hatch crossed or tinted with Mc Lean or Gilmore blood,both of which are green or blue legged types which are said toprovide speed, power and gameness. Nelson says that he bred his HighAction Hatch hens to a Gilmore Hatch brood cock provided to him byDr. Pepe Sullano. He is very happy with the offsprings since he hasalready sold more than 60 heads at a good price of not less thanP4,500.00 each. With that sales alone he said that he has alreadyrecovered ;his feed expenses for this year and expect that the morethan 150 stags that are still maturing will somehow bring him morethan what he expects.
Rommel on the other hand had beensupplied by his customers and friends with top rated brood materials.“I would not like to divulge the friends and customers who providedmy brood stocks because they want it that way. They also haveexclusive right to my stags that is why every stock that I raise isconsidered sold already. I cannot produce enough because it gets soldanyway”, says Rommel. Both he and Nelson are still breeding thisoff-season (May to September) because there are buyers who still buythose late produce since cockfighting is non-stop especially inManila.
Game fowl raising as a way of life.
“Breeding game fowls have been mymain occupation since I got married from which I have raised myfamily. My eldest son had graduated and is already on board a ship asa sailor and I have high hopes that like the other seamen who hadprospered, he will also help us economically as he progresses in hiscareer. My second son is graduating from the Hotel and RestaurantManagement course. My youngest is still in the elementary grades.With tuition fees and their daily school needs so expensive thesedays I culd not have afforded their schooling had I just taken manuallabor which pays minimum wage”, says Nelson.
Everybody in the family helps. His wifebeing very supportive tends to the incubator and the chicks that iswhy they can hatch more than 500 each year and on a 50/50 ratio ofmales to females, they can easily mature 250 or more stags orcockerels every year. Nelson and his children tend to feeding andother chores. We use only the best feeds available to other breedersand feeders of game fowls. “We don't scrimp on feeds because itshows on the health, size, height and conformation of the stags andcocks we produce. Since cockfighting is competitive and there is onlyone bottom line which is to win, our buyers demand value for theirmoney”.
Both Nelson and Rommel provideemployment indirectly to others in the neighborhood. Their tepees aremade by laborers who charge them P120.00 per unit and Rommel saidthat the materials cost about P50-60 and the rest is labor for themakers. A maker he said can make 5-6 units daily with some help,often from their own children. They also need 500 or so tie cordswhich they use to anchor the legs of their chickens. A tie cord costsP8.00 per unit so between the two of us, we buy about P8,000 worth oftie cords every year. A family making these can produce this in twoweeks' time and their cost of materials is just about P3,000 thusmaking for them an income of about P5,000.00 in two weeks.
Game fowl breeding provides fooddirectly and indirectly. Indirectly, when the choice stags and cocksare sold at a good price and used to buy rice and other food items.Directly, when undersized and culls are slaughtered for the table.Extra eggs are also eaten, often hard boiled and brought by thechildren to school as snacks. “Our children are healthy and activebecause they get to eat high levels of protein from chicken meat andeggs”, says Rommel.
The game is now competitive. With twomajor federations of breeders nationwide and an almost non-stopcompetition, the demand for quality stags and cocks have increased.We are often visited by buyers who say that they were referred bytheir friends who have bought from us and want to buy the same typesas those bought in the previous years because they said that they sawthem win. We cannot refuse them and they just added to our list ofcustomers.
“We don't fight our roosters anymore.Our buyers do it for us. We just sell and somehow these buyers comeback year after year because they are satisfied with the stocks theybought. Since we also improve our breeds according to theirsuggestions, they usually buy the new offspring where they had a handin selecting the brood stocks.
“This is our livelihood and ourpassion. While some may say that this is gambling, for us this issurvival and our chance for a better life. We have not finishedschool and we don't have other means to support our families. Wecannot leave this industry that has provided us with a decent life”,both Rommel and Nelson concluded.
100th Anniversary Edition
by James Dryden
416 pages.Suggested retail price, $34.95. ISBN 1938099036.
The Origin of the 300-Egg Hen
Where other chicken breeders failed, Professor James Dryden in Oregon succeeded, when “Lady MacDuff” laid 303 eggs in 365 days in 1912-1913.
The Scientific Breeding Of Gamefowl (floyd Gurley)
How did he do it? Through the methods described in this book, which can be divided into two parts: his successful breeding techniques and his simple yet effective management techniques.
Dryden’s breeding techniques were so successful that he created not one, but three record-breaking strains of chicken at the same time. This book describes these efforts in detail.
Dryden’s management techniques were equally successful and endeared him to farmers across the country.
Poultry Breeding and Management, first published a century ago, was an immediate hit with farmers and breeders alike, and remained in print for nearly thirty years. It was the best, most popular, and most influential poultry book of its time, and remains well worth reading today.
Table of Contents
- Historical Aspect.
- Evolution of Modern Fowl.
- Modern Development of Industry.
- Classification of Breeds.
- Origin and Description of Breeds.
- Principles of Poultry Breeding.
- Problem of Higher Fecundity.
- Systems of Poultry Farming.
- Housing of Poultry.
- Kinds of House to Build.
- Fundamentals of Feeding.
- Common Poultry Foods.
- Methods of Feeding.
- Methods of Hatching Chickens.
- Artificial Brooding.
- Marketing Eggs and Poultry.
- Diseases and Parasites of Fowls.
About Professor James Dryden
James Dryden (1863-1935) was Professor of Poultry Science at Oregon Agricultural College (now Oregon State University) and was the first to demonstrate that egg production can be increased through selective breeding. He is the only poultryman ever inducted into National Agricultural Hall of Fame.
A Norton Creek Classic
This book is part of the Norton Creek Classics series; books from our
past with an important part to play in our future.
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